WebSocket

Learn the possible WebSocket operations with Gatling: connect, close, send.

WebSocket support was initially contributed by Andrew Duffy.

WebSocket support is an extension to the HTTP DSL, whose entry point is the ws method.

WebSocket protocol is very different from the HTTP one as the communication is 2 ways: both client-to-server and server-to-client, so the model is different from the HTTP request/response pair.

As a consequence, the main HTTP branch and a WebSocket branch can exist in a Gatling scenario in a dissociated way, in parallel. When doing so, each flow branch has its own state, so a user might have to reconcile them, for example when capturing data from a WebSocket check and wanting this data to be available to the HTTP branch.

wsName

If you want to deal with several WebSockets per virtual users, you have to give them a name and pass this name on each ws operation:

     
ws("WS Operation").wsName("myCustomName");
ws("WS Operation").wsName("myCustomName")
ws("WS Operation").wsName("myCustomName")

If you set an explicit name for the WebSocket, you’ll have to make it explicit for every other WebSocket actions you’ll define later in the scenario.

Of course, this step is not required if you deal with one single WebSocket per virtual user.

connect

The first thing is to connect a WebSocket:

     
exec(ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=gatling"));
exec(ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=gatling"))
exec(ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=gatling"))

You can specify a subprotocol:

     
exec(ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=gatling").subprotocol("custom"));
exec(ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=gatling").subprotocol("custom"))
exec(ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=gatling").subprotocol("custom"))

You can define a chain of actions to be performed after (re-)connecting with onConnected:

     
exec(ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=gatling")
  .onConnected(
    exec(ws("Perform auth")
      .sendText("Some auth token"))
      .pause(1)
  ));
exec(ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=gatling")
  .onConnected(
    exec(ws("Perform auth")
      .sendText("Some auth token"))
      .pause(1)
  ))
exec(ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=gatling")
  .onConnected(
    exec(ws("Perform auth")
      .sendText("Some auth token"))
      .pause(1)
  ))

close

Once you’re done with a WebSocket, you can close it:

     
// close with a 1000 status
exec(ws("Close WS").close());
// close with arbitrary status and reason
exec(ws("Close WS").close(1007, "Invalid payload data"));
// close with a 1000 status
exec(ws("Close WS").close())
// close with arbitrary status and reason
exec(ws("Close WS").close(1007, "Invalid payload data"))
// close with a 1000 status
exec(ws("Close WS").close)
// close with arbitrary status and reason
exec(ws("Close WS").close(1007, "Invalid payload data"))

Send a Message

You may send text or binary messages:

  • sendText(text: Expression[String])
  • sendBytes(bytes: Expression[Array[Byte]])

For example:

     
// send text with a Gatling EL string
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText("{\"text\": \"Hello, I'm #{id} and this is message #{i}!\"}"));
// send text with a function
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(session -> "{\"text\": \"Hello, I'm " + session.getString("id") + " and this is message " + session.getString("i") + "!\"}"));
// send text with ElFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(ElFileBody("filePath")));
// send text with ElFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(PebbleStringBody("somePebbleTemplate")));
// send text with ElFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(PebbleFileBody("filePath")));

// send bytes with a Gatling EL string referencing a byte array in the Session
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes("#{bytes}"));
// send bytes with a function
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes(session -> new byte[] { 0, 5, 3, 1 }));
// send bytes with RawFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes(RawFileBody("filePath")));
// send bytes with RawFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes(ByteArrayBody("#{bytes}")));
// send text with a Gatling EL string
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText("""{"text": "Hello, I'm #{id} and this is message #{i}!"}"""))
// send text with a function
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText { session -> """{"text": "Hello, I'm ${session.getString("id")} and this is message ${session.getString("i")}!"}""" })
// send text with ElFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(ElFileBody("filePath")))
// send text with ElFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(PebbleStringBody("somePebbleTemplate")))
// send text with ElFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(PebbleFileBody("filePath")))

// send bytes with a Gatling EL string referencing a byte array in the Session
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes("#{bytes}"))
// send bytes with a function
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes { session -> byteArrayOf(0, 5, 3, 1) })
// send bytes with RawFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes(RawFileBody("filePath")))
// send bytes with RawFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes(ByteArrayBody("#{bytes}")))
// send text with a Gatling EL string
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText("""{"text": "Hello, I'm #{id} and this is message #{i}!"}"""))
// send text with a function
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(session => s"""{"text": "Hello, I'm ${session("id").as[String]} and this is message ${session("i").as[String]}!"}"""))
// send text with ElFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(ElFileBody("filePath")))
// send text with ElFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(PebbleStringBody("somePebbleTemplate")))
// send text with ElFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendText(PebbleFileBody("filePath")))

// send bytes with a Gatling EL string referencing a byte array in the Session
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes("#{bytes}"))
// send bytes with a function
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes(session => Array[Byte](0, 5, 3, 1)))
// send bytes with RawFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes(RawFileBody("filePath")))
  // send bytes with RawFileBody
exec(ws("Message")
  .sendBytes(ByteArrayBody("#{bytes}")))

Note that:

  • ElFileBody, PebbleStringBody and PebbleFileBody can be used with sendText
  • RawFileBody and ByteArrayBody can be used with sendBytes.

See HTTP request body for more information.

Checks

Gatling currently only supports blocking checks that will wait until receiving expected message or timing out.

Set a Check

You can set a check right after connecting:

     
exec(ws("Connect").connect("/foo").await(30).on(wsCheck));
exec(ws("Connect").connect("/foo").await(30).on(wsCheck))
exec(ws("Connect").connect("/foo").await(30)(wsCheck))

Or you can set a check right after sending a message to the server:

     
exec(ws("Send").sendText("hello").await(30).on(wsCheck));
exec(ws("Send").sendText("hello").await(30).on(wsCheck))
exec(ws("Send").sendText("hello").await(30)(wsCheck))

You can set multiple checks sequentially. Each one will expect one single frame.

You can configure multiple checks in a single sequence:

     
// expecting 2 messages
// 1st message will be validated against wsCheck1
// 2nd message will be validated against wsCheck2
// whole sequence must complete withing 30 seconds
exec(ws("Send").sendText("hello")
  .await(30).on(wsCheck1, wsCheck2));
// expecting 2 messages
// 1st message will be validated against wsCheck1
// 2nd message will be validated against wsCheck2
// whole sequence must complete withing 30 seconds
exec(ws("Send").sendText("hello")
  .await(30).on(wsCheck1, wsCheck2))
// expecting 2 messages
// 1st message will be validated against wsCheck1
// 2nd message will be validated against wsCheck2
// whole sequence must complete withing 30 seconds
exec(ws("Send").sendText("hello")
  .await(30)(wsCheck1, wsCheck2))

You can also configure multiple check sequences with different timeouts:

     
// expecting 2 messages
// 1st message will be validated against wsCheck1
// 2nd message will be validated against wsCheck2
// both sequences must complete withing 15 seconds
// 2nd sequence will start after 1st one completes
exec(ws("Send").sendText("hello")
  .await(15).on(wsCheck1)
  .await(15).on(wsCheck2)
);
// expecting 2 messages
// 1st message will be validated against wsCheck1
// 2nd message will be validated against wsCheck2
// both sequences must complete withing 15 seconds
// 2nd sequence will start after 1st one completes
exec(ws("Send").sendText("hello")
  .await(15).on(wsCheck1)
  .await(15).on(wsCheck2)
)
// expecting 2 messages
// 1st message will be validated against wsCheck1
// 2nd message will be validated against wsCheck2
// both sequences must complete withing 15 seconds
// 2nd sequence will start after 1st one completes
exec(ws("Send").sendText("hello")
  .await(15)(wsCheck1)
  .await(15)(wsCheck2)
)

Create a check

You can create checks for text and binary frames with checkTextMessage and checkBinaryMessage. You can use almost all the same check criteria as for HTTP requests.

     
// with a static name
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"));
// with a Gatling EL string name
ws.checkTextMessage("#{checkName}")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"));
// with a function name
ws.checkTextMessage(session -> "checkName")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"));
// with a static name
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"))
// with a Gatling EL string name
ws.checkTextMessage("#{checkName}")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"))
// with a function name
ws.checkTextMessage{ session -> "checkName" }
.check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"))
// with a static name
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"))
// with a Gatling EL string name
ws.checkTextMessage("#{checkName}")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"))
// with a function name
ws.checkTextMessage(session => "checkName")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"))

You can have multiple criteria for a given message:

     
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .check(
    jsonPath("$.code").ofInt().is(1).saveAs("code"),
    jsonPath("$.message").is("OK")
  );
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .check(
    jsonPath("$.code").ofInt().shouldBe(1).saveAs("code"),
    jsonPath("$.message").shouldBe("OK")
  )
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .check(
    jsonPath("$.code").ofType[Int].is(1).saveAs("code"),
    jsonPath("$.message").is("OK")
  )

checks can be marked as silent. Silent checks won’t be reported whatever their outcome.

     
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"))
  .silent();
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"))
  .silent()
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .check(regex("hello (.*)").saveAs("name"))
  .silent

Matching messages

You can define matching criteria to filter messages you want to check. Matching criterion is a standard check, except it doesn’t take saveAs. Non-matching messages will be ignored.

     
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .matching(jsonPath("$.uuid").is("#{correlation}"))
  .check(jsonPath("$.code").ofInt().is(1));
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .matching(jsonPath("$.uuid").shouldBe("#{correlation}"))
  .check(jsonPath("$.code").ofInt().shouldBe(1))
ws.checkTextMessage("checkName")
  .matching(jsonPath("$.uuid").is("#{correlation}"))
  .check(jsonPath("$.code").ofType[Int].is(1))

Configuration

WebSocket support introduces new HttpProtocol parameters:

     
http
  // similar to standard `baseUrl` for HTTP,
  // serves as root that will be prepended to all relative WebSocket urls
  .wsBaseUrl("url")
  // similar to standard `baseUrls` for HTTP,
  // serves as round-robin roots that will be prepended
  // to all relative WebSocket urls
  .wsBaseUrls("url1", "url2")
  // automatically reconnect a WebSocket that would have been
  // closed by someone else than the client.
  .wsReconnect()
  // set a limit on the number of times a WebSocket will be
  // automatically reconnected
  .wsMaxReconnects(5)
  //  configure auto reply for specific WebSocket text messages.
  //  Example: `wsAutoReplyTextFrame({ case "ping" => "pong" })`
  //  will automatically reply with message `"pong"`
  //  when message `"ping"` is received.
  //  Those messages won't be visible in any reports or statistics.
  .wsAutoReplyTextFrame( text ->
    text.equals("ping") ? "pong" : null
  )
  // enable partial support for Engine.IO v4.
  // Gatling will automatically respond
  // to server ping messages (`2`) with pong (`3`).
  // Cannot be used together with `wsAutoReplyTextFrame`.
  .wsAutoReplySocketIo4();
http
  // similar to standard `baseUrl` for HTTP,
  // serves as root that will be prepended to all relative WebSocket urls
  .wsBaseUrl("url")
  // similar to standard `baseUrls` for HTTP,
  // serves as round-robin roots that will be prepended
  // to all relative WebSocket urls
  .wsBaseUrls("url1", "url2")
  // automatically reconnect a WebSocket that would have been
  // closed by someone else than the client.
  .wsReconnect()
  // set a limit on the number of times a WebSocket will be
  // automatically reconnected
  .wsMaxReconnects(5)
  //  configure auto reply for specific WebSocket text messages.
  //  Example: `wsAutoReplyTextFrame({ case "ping" => "pong" })`
  //  will automatically reply with message `"pong"`
  //  when message `"ping"` is received.
  //  Those messages won't be visible in any reports or statistics.
  .wsAutoReplyTextFrame {
    text -> if (text == "ping") "pong" else null
  }
  // enable partial support for Engine.IO v4.
  // Gatling will automatically respond
  // to server ping messages (`2`) with pong (`3`).
  // Cannot be used together with `wsAutoReplyTextFrame`.
  .wsAutoReplySocketIo4()
http
  // similar to standard `baseUrl` for HTTP,
  // serves as root that will be prepended to all relative WebSocket urls
  .wsBaseUrl("url")
  // similar to standard `baseUrls` for HTTP,
  // serves as round-robin roots that will be prepended
  // to all relative WebSocket urls
  .wsBaseUrls("url1", "url2")
  // automatically reconnect a WebSocket that would have been
  // closed by someone else than the client.
  .wsReconnect
  // set a limit on the number of times a WebSocket will be
  // automatically reconnected
  .wsMaxReconnects(5)
  //  configure auto reply for specific WebSocket text messages.
  //  Example: `wsAutoReplyTextFrame({ case "ping" => "pong" })`
  //  will automatically reply with message `"pong"`
  //  when message `"ping"` is received.
  //  Those messages won't be visible in any reports or statistics.
  .wsAutoReplyTextFrame {
    case "ping" => "pong"
  }
  // enable partial support for Engine.IO v4.
  // Gatling will automatically respond
  // to server ping messages (`2`) with pong (`3`).
  // Cannot be used together with `wsAutoReplyTextFrame`.
  .wsAutoReplySocketIo4

Debugging

You can inspect WebSocket traffic if you add the following logger to your logback configuration:

<logger name="io.gatling.http.action.ws.fsm" level="DEBUG" />

Example

Here’s an example that runs against Play 2.2’s chatroom sample (beware that this sample is missing from Play 2.3 and above):

     
HttpProtocolBuilder httpProtocol = http
  .baseUrl("http://localhost:9000")
  .acceptHeader("text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8")
  .doNotTrackHeader("1")
  .acceptLanguageHeader("en-US,en;q=0.5")
  .acceptEncodingHeader("gzip, deflate")
  .userAgentHeader("Gatling2")
  .wsBaseUrl("ws://localhost:9000");

ScenarioBuilder scn = scenario("WebSocket")
  .exec(
    http("Home").get("/"),
    pause(1),
    exec(session -> session.set("id", "Gatling" + session.userId())),
    http("Login").get("/room?username=#{id}"),
    pause(1),
    ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=#{id}"),
    pause(1),
    repeat(2, "i").on(
    ws("Say Hello WS")
      .sendText("{\"text\": \"Hello, I'm #{id} and this is message #{i}!\"}")
      .await(30).on(
        ws.checkTextMessage("checkName").check(regex(".*I'm still alive.*"))
      ),
      pause(1)
    ),
    ws("Close WS").close()
  );
val httpProtocol = http
  .baseUrl("http://localhost:9000")
  .acceptHeader("text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8")
  .doNotTrackHeader("1")
  .acceptLanguageHeader("en-US,en;q=0.5")
  .acceptEncodingHeader("gzip, deflate")
  .userAgentHeader("Gatling2")
  .wsBaseUrl("ws://localhost:9000")

val scn = scenario("WebSocket")
  .exec(
    http("Home").get("/"),
    pause(1),
    exec { session -> session.set("id", "Gatling" + session.userId()) },
    http("Login").get("/room?username=#{id}"),
    pause(1),
    ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=#{id}"),
    pause(1),
    repeat(2, "i").on(
      ws("Say Hello WS")
        .sendText("""{"text": "Hello, I'm #{id} and this is message #{i}!"}""")
        .await(30).on(
          ws.checkTextMessage("checkName").check(regex(".*I'm still alive.*"))
      )
    ),
    pause(1),
    ws("Close WS").close()
  )
val httpProtocol = http
  .baseUrl("http://localhost:9000")
  .acceptHeader("text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8")
  .doNotTrackHeader("1")
  .acceptLanguageHeader("en-US,en;q=0.5")
  .acceptEncodingHeader("gzip, deflate")
  .userAgentHeader("Gatling2")
  .wsBaseUrl("ws://localhost:9000")

val scn = scenario("WebSocket")
  .exec(
    http("Home").get("/"),
    pause(1),
    exec(session => session.set("id", "Steph" + session.userId)),
    http("Login").get("/room?username=#{id}"),
    pause(1),
    ws("Connect WS").connect("/room/chat?username=#{id}"),
    pause(1),
    repeat(2, "i")(
      ws("Say Hello WS")
        .sendText("""{"text": "Hello, I'm #{id} and this is message #{i}!"}""")
        .await(30)(
          ws.checkTextMessage("checkName").check(regex(".*I'm still alive.*"))
        )
    ),
    pause(1),
    ws("Close WS").close
  )

Edit this page on GitHub